Source Incorporation & Academic Integrity

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Week 5 Lesson: Collective Research
Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Quoting
Hand marking a summary page on clipboard with a highlighter, wallet, coffee, and watch on the deskSummarizing vs Paraphrasing
To summarize involves the skills of putting an author’s entire argument into a condensed form. As Seyler and Brizee note, “A summary briefly restates, in your own words, the main point of a work in a way that does not misrepresent or distort the original” (2018, p. 10). A summary communicates the high-level points without adding details that are unnecessary to a reader who only needs a general impression.


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To paraphrase involves the skills of re-phrasing an idea that is typically one to two sentences long. Where a summary covers an entire book or article, a paraphrase only restates some of the information (Seyler & Brizee, 2018). Paraphrase can be especially useful to communicate complex ideas, such as technical ideas, in a more simplified form for an audience who would otherwise not understand them. Writers use paraphrase to smoothly incorporate others’ ideas in a document.

The following table contains a mnemonic (a memory aid) to help you remember how to apply summary and paraphrase.

Four Criteria for Summarizing and Paraphrasing

Summarize: S-S-S-S

Paraphrase: S-S-S-R

Same ideas—confirm the accuracy of your understanding of the original ideas from the source and put ideas in your words without adding your opinion or misrepresenting the ideas.

Same ideas—confirm the accuracy of your understanding of the original ideas from the source and put ideas in your words without adding your opinion or misrepresenting the ideas.

Synonyms—substitute the author’s words for other words with the same meaning. Choose words that suit the selected audience.

Synonyms—substitute the author’s words for other words with the same meaning. Choose words that suit the selected audience.

Shuffle—restructure the ideas so that the same position of subject and verb is not retained; this will avoid duplicating the number of sentences or the sentence structure from the original.

Shuffle—restructure the ideas so that the same position of subject and verb is not retained; this will avoid duplicating the number of sentences or the sentence structure from the original.

Shorten—include only major, high-level ideas, not specific details.

Retain—use about the same number of words because you are including major ideas as well as specific details.

When and Where to Quote?
Although most of your paper will be written in your own words, you may find it necessary to quote at times. Keep in mind that quotes interrupt your own writer’s voice, and you will need to re-establish your connection with the audience as the dominant voice in the paper after each quote. As Seyler and Brizee note, “Constantly shifting between your words and the language of your source (not to mention all those quotation marks) makes reading your essay difficult” (2018, p. 295). Therefore, it is best to choose quotes wisely, and use them only when necessary.

Quote bubble with the words Your Quote Goes Here!

Use quotes for the following reasons:

The authority backs up your assertion (establishes credibility for your argument).
The original language is distinct or applies jargon too precise to ‘translate’
The source applies a specific list of items difficult to paraphrase or adapt
Your argument or analysis emphasizes a specific word choice or definition applied in the original source.
Quotes are generally acceptable to use in an introduction as an attention grabber, or in a conclusion as motivation or reflection. In body paragraphs, however, quotes belong in the middle of the paragraph. Think back on the structure of body paragraphs (Lesson 3): topic sentence + evidence + connection/conclusion. We cannot begin or end a body paragraph with a quotation. We must introduce and explain all quotes. Never leave quotes “hanging” or assume the audience will make the appropriate connections.

For one of our discussions this week, we will practice annotating and citing a source through a basic annotated bibliography entry. An annotated bibliography is a research technique that collects and analyzes source feasibility.

Click on the following tabs to review the 4 parts of an annotated bibliography.

Reference Page CitationSummaryStatement of CredibilityEvaluation
Cite the source as you would a reference page citation. Our library has a wonderful website dedicated entirely to APA formatting, including samples and tutorials:

Link (webpage): APA Citation and Writing (Links to an external site.)

Example Annotated Bibliography Entry
Onosko, J. (2011). Race to the top leaves children and future citizens behind. Democracy & Education, 19(2), 1-11.


1 Onosko’s article is about the Race to the Top (RTT) program and its negative effects regarding education in general and students in particular. Although it had good intentions—to increase accountability, raise standards, and reward improvement—it has only led to more problems. He explains eight weaknesses of RTT, including the argument that high-stakes tests endorsed by this initiative have not achieved the goal of raising students’ math and reading test scores. Also, this initiative created the conditions for the Atlanta teachers cheating scandal; moreover, it lowers teachers’ morale, provides a disincentive to enter the teaching profession, and limits the development of students’ full intellectual potential 2 Onosko, who is a professor of education at the University of New Hampshire and wrote this article for the peer-reviewed journal Democracy & Education, foresees further devastating consequences unless the course of RTT is changed.

4 My assessment: This article about the Race to the Top (RTT) initiative will help to support several of the points in my paper. In Section II, Problem Analysis, I will mention the Atlanta teachers cheating scandal that is identified in this article as resulting from the environment of rewards and punishment created in many school districts from this initiative. Also, ideas from this article will help me in detailing the history of the problem of RTT, as well as its effects on teachers and their profession.

Parts of Paragraph


Planning the Pro-Con Position Paper
Weeks 5-7 will focus on developing a comprehensive pro-con positon paper. In our previous position papers, we have focused on just one or the other, but the final paper for the term will combine the two sides (pro and con of a topic) to prove one stance/side superior to the other.

Although we have no writing assignment due to this week, we should continue to plan ahead. This week, let’s work on brainstorming a potential thesis statement and choosing the appropriate organizational approach.

Thesis development
The new thesis should present both the opposition’s argument and your rebuttal in the one complete sentence. Transitional phrases (and the occasional semi-colon when warranted) are recommended.


Supporters of ___ may recommend ___; however, evidence proves that ____.
Some patients may advocate for ___, but research suggests ___.
While the opposition to ___ present many validate points, overall, the best stance is ___.
Many may disagree with the assertion that ___ instead holding to ___; however, when studied from an objective stance, ___ proves more beneficial.
Organizational Patterns
A pro/con position paper generally applies an alternating or divided organizational approach. Carefully consider which approach would work best for your specific topic choice.

Click on the following tabs to review the different patterns.

Alternating PatternDivided Pattern

Attention Grabber
Thesis Statement
Grounds / 1st Counterargument (your opposition’s point)

Backing (establish credibility of the source)
Warrant (evidence)
Possible concession
Grounds / 1st Rebuttal

Backing (establish credibility of the source)
Warrant (evidence)
Grounds / 2nd Counterargument (your opposition’s point)

Backing (establish credibility of the source)
Warrant (evidence)
Possible concession
Grounds / 2nd Rebuttal

Backing (establish credibility of the source)
Warrant (evidence)
Grounds / 3rd Counterargument (your opposition’s point)

Backing (establish credibility of the source)
Warrant (evidence)
Possible concession
Grounds / 3rd Rebuttal

Backing (establish credibility of the source)
Warrant (evidence)

This is week 5 topic discussion for the writer to follow.Week 5 Discussion 2: Source Incorporation & Academic Integrity
No unread replies.11 reply.
Required Resources
Read/review the following resources for this activity:

Textbook: Chapter 1
Lesson: Week 3, 4, 5
Link (website): Student Handbook (Chamberlain University) (Links to an external site.)
Link (website): Turnitin: The Plagiarism Spectrum (Links to an external site.)
Minimum of 1 scholarly source (apply a previously collected source for your Week 7 Pro-Con Position Paper)
Apply the following writing resources to your posts:

Link (multimedia presentation): Citing References in Text (Links to an external site.)
Link (website): APA Citation and Writing (Links to an external site.)
Initial Post Instructions

Part 1: Research & Review

Pay particular attention to the following as you review the Required Resources for this activity:

Week 3 Lesson: Building Body Paragraphs section
Week 4 Lesson: Signal Phrases section
Website links
Then, choose one of the sources you have collected so far this term.

Part 2: Application
Draft a body paragraph for the upcoming pro/con position paper, incorporating one paraphrase and one quote.

The paragraph should contain a topic sentence, evidence, and conclusion/connection. Strive for a minimum of 5 complete sentences.
The paraphrase should be introduced with a signal phrase.
The quote should be introduced and explained.
Both the paraphrase and quote should be cited in-text and on a reference page.
Then, answer the following prompts:

Explain your approach to paraphrasing vs quoting.
What made the quote stand out?
Based on the information from the Turnitin plagiarism link, how did you ensure both the paraphrase and quote were not plagiarized?
How did reviewing the Turnitin plagiarism link impact how you incorporated your resources?
Do you prefer to paraphrase or quote? Why is that the case?
Click on the following Writing Tip link for a review of citations:

Link: Writing Tip

Follow-Up Post Instructions

Respond to at least two peers or one peer and the instructor. Offer additional insight into your peers’ responses by furthering the discussion.

Identify the signal phrases and how they are used. What impact do these have on reading the paragraph?
Based on the content and presentation of the resource, can you conclude the argument or position the student is building?
Do you see areas of the post that might fall into any categories listed in the Turnitin link? If so, suggest how the student can remedy the situation to avoid potential plagiarism.
Writing Requirements

Minimum of 3 posts (1 initial & 2 follow-up)
Initial Post Length: minimum of 3 college-level paragraphs
APA format for in-text citations and list of references
This activity will be graded using the Discussion Grading Rubric. Please review the following link:

Link (webpage): Discussion Guidelines
Course Outcomes : 4, 6

Due Date for Initial Post: By 11:59 p.m. MT on Wednesday
Due Date for Follow-Up Posts: By 11:59 p.m. MT on Sunday

this an English class.the writer to chose one source

this is other info for this order
eek 3 Lesson: Rhetorical Appeals
Rhetorical Appeals
Along with the sources for arguable claims, there are four types of persuasive appeals used in writing and in speaking:

Reason (logos)
Authority (ethos)
Emotion (pathos)
Setting (kairos)
Cereal box

A writer uses each type of evidence depending on the context. Aristotle gave us the means to examine persuasion through rhetoric. Rhetoric is the ability to identify persuasion in a given situation. Note the definition here stresses identification over application. Although the end goal is to write persuasively in our position papers, we must first put ourselves in the place of the audience (or consumer) and identify how such persuasion (or is some cases manipulation) takes place.

Modern advertising is an excellent illustration of how the appeals are applied. For the sake of this lesson, let’s imagine a box of children’s name brand cereal. As we discuss the appeals, think of how advertisers might influence the consumer (mainly parents and children) to purchase the product. Do you have a specific cereal in mind? Ok, let’s go!

Click on the following tabs to review 4 types of appeals.

Aristotle’s preferred means of persuasion was through the appeal to logos, or logic. Appeals to reason emphasize facts or evidence. Writers use logical statements and examples as support and evidence. According to our text,

Aristotle maintains that part of an arguer’s appeal to his or her audience lies in the logic of the argument and the quality of the support provided. Even the most credible of writer’s will not move a thoughtful audience with inadequate evidence or sloppy reasoning. (Seyler & Brizee, 2018, p. 67).

As the authors note, a logical approach considers both the evidence and the organization of the argument. What on the cereal box might be considered an example of logos? Generally, when it comes to children’s advertising logos is reserved for the parents. So what on the box would appeal to the parents’ sense of logic? An appeal to nutrition perhaps? Economical reasoning?

The chapter readings for this week, along with your assignments, will help you examine the elements of argument in context. In our discussion boards this week, we will practice identifying the appeals through medical and communal-health advertising.

Building Body Paragraphs
Hammer in a gear

Body paragraphs can be broken down into a formula, containing three distinct sections:

Topic sentence (1 sentence)
Evidence (3+ sentences)
Connection/Conclusion (1+ sentence)
The topic sentence is a mini-summary of the paragraph. It should include the topic and main idea of the paragraph. If taken out of the context of the paper, the topic sentence should still make sense. The topic sentence is always written in your own words; never a quote.

The evidence is the largest section of a body paragraph. Here we would include the reasoning to back our assertion/claim. Paraphrases, summaries, and quotes would be appropriate here, although you are not limited to just facts. You might also consider testimonies, comparisons, causes/effects, or process analysis (step-by-step guides).

The connection/conclusion ends the body paragraph. Here the evidence is evaluated and applied. We cannot leave evidence unattended. Seyler and Brizee note,

Readers need to be told how to respond to the sources used. They need to know which sources you accept as reliable and which you disagree with, and they need you to distinguish clearly between fact and opinion. Ideas and opinions from sources need signal phrases and then some discussion from you. (2018, p. 300).

Consider applying transitional words and phrases as you conclude the paragraph and connect to the next topic in the next body paragraph.

Introductions and Conclusions
The introduction contains the following elements:

Attention-getting hook
Topic, purpose, and thesis
Relevance to reader
Fish approaching a hookUse an attention grabber, also known as a hook, to gain the attention of your reader. You have written paragraphs of introduction in prior assignments for this course. Take a look at one and see if you can strengthen the way it starts. A good hook will present an idea that effectively draws your reader into wanting to know more about your topic. For example, pay close attention to how your sources use hooks for their articles. Additionally, any of the following are examples of attention-getting openers (Seyler & Brizee, 2018).

Pose a thought-provoking question.
Present a short anecdote.
Cite a surprising statistic.
Assert a challenging statement.
Use a quotation.
Incorporate dialogue.

After you have developed each section of your argument, you are ready to plan the conclusion. The final section of the project is the conclusion.

An effective conclusion for a longer piece of writing is two to three paragraphs. Since you have already written clear and detailed ideas in earlier sections, there is no need to repeat what you have already said through copy and paste. Instead, the conclusion offers memorable ideas about your argument that will persuade your audience to see your argument as logical and reasonable (Seyer & Brizee, 2018).

mirrorConsider applying the mirroring technique in your conclusion. This approach circles back around to the method used in the intro, offering follow through. That is, if you began the paper with a thought-provoking question, the conclusion would answer that question. If you introduced the essay with a third-person narrative, the conclusion would resolve that narrative. The mirroring approach works best on shorter papers around 5 pages or less.

Considering the Cons: Topic Generation and Thesis Development (Review)
As we did in Week 1, it may be helpful to use heuristics to develop a working thesis statement by creating research questions. The focus of our second paper is on con topics, so we can direct our research questions to help explore the topic further. Try to incorporate terms like risk, negative, danger, and lose/loss to direct your research questions.


Who might be at risk during vaccinations?
What are the dangers of vaccinations?
What does society lose by promoting vaccines?
How are vaccines disadvantageous?
Who benefits from marketing vaccinations?
Why might people choose not to vaccinate?
Now, choose a research question, and the answer could be your potential working thesis statement.

Example Topic

Research Question

Working Thesis


Why should vaccinations be discouraged?

Vaccinations should be discouraged because of potential health risks, alarming chemicals, and constitutional violations.

Why might people choose not to vaccinate?

Individuals choose not to vaccinate for several reasons, including medical risks, ethical objections, or financial hardships.

Man at computer with gears and light bulb coming out of his head and paper and pencils and other items floating around him showing him in the process of workingAs before, remember the goal is a working thesis statement, meaning it is subject to change. As you conduct your research, it is important to remain objective and to revise your argument, or thesis, as your research progresses.

Week 4 Lesson: Information Literacy
What Is Information Literacy?
Information literacy is the ability to do the following:

Find what type of info you need to meet the research goals, and determine what can be omitted.
Locate the best source of information for the situation based on credibility and suitability.
Analyze & apply that information effectively (and honorably).
Review the following resources from the Chamberlain library. Both resources discusses the differences between primary and secondary sources, as well as scholarly, popular, and trade sources.

Link (video): Scholarly Research Workshop (Links to an external site.) (9:11)
Link (webpage): Reading and Understanding Scholarly Literature: What Does Peer-Reviewed Mean? (Links to an external site.)

Peer-Reviewed Sources

Keep the following information in mind as you conduct research:

Magnifying glass

Peer-reviewed articles are vetted by a team of reviewers prior to being allowed in the publication. Reviewers are knowledgeable in the field, check the methods used, determine whether proper processes were used and logical conclusions were developed. These articles are more likely to be unique and significant contributions to the field.

Databases may have both peer-reviewed and non-peer reviewed publications. To search for only peer-reviewed articles in the database, go to the Chamberlain library homepage and type your keyword in the search field on the Everything tab. Click Search. On the left side of the search results, select Academic (Peer-Reviewed) Journals. (Chamberlain, 2019, para. 1-2)

Finding the “right” sources can be challenging when there are so many resources at our fingertips. Our textbook (Chapter 12) details the types of sources available at most libraries, including reference collections (dictionaries, encyclopedias, atlases, biographies, etc.), and databases containing a wealth of journal and newspaper articles. The library databases are especially useful since we can apply limiters, like full-text and peer-reviewed sources, to narrow down the focus. The text also provides guidelines for searching the web. As critical researchers, we are all aware of the dangers inherent when searching online for resources. Below you will find a list of research do’s and don’ts that may be helpful as you continue to collect your sources over the term.

Research Do’s

Research Don’ts

Non-fiction Books & eBooks

Most .coms

Academic Journal Articles,,,, etc.

Reputable Newspaper Articles


.edu, .gov, .org, .mil type sources


Well-known dictionaries & encyclopedias

Inspirational quote websites

Interviews (must have an academic or professional background in the field)

Satirical news sources

The information literacy skills learned over the term will help you not only in your classes here at Chamberlain but also in your professional and personal life. Determining what kind of information you need, how to find and choose appropriate information, and then how to use it effectively can help you construct discussion board posts and research projects…but how will this skill set help you outside of the classroom? How do you gather and apply new knowledge or skills in your profession? When you need to make a big purchase or choose a doctor in for your family, how do you conduct comparative research?

Source Evaluation
Clipboard with checklistHave you ever used a Fitbit or other health awareness device or application? These types of devices are meant to track personal health, such as steps walked or calories burned in a given time. In 2016, the Journal of Nursing Education composed a study with the help of undergraduate and graduate nursing and healthcare students (like many of you!). Their goal was to evaluate consumer effectiveness of medical/health mobile apps (Herron, 2016). To access these apps, the authors applied an evaluation technique known as the CRAAP test:

The authors adapted the CRAAP (Currency, Relevance, Authority, Accuracy, Purpose) Test (California State University Chico, 2010), a set of evaluative questions commonly used in the library and information science field, to serve as a guideline for students to critically evaluate mobile health apps. (as cited in McNiel & McArthur, 2016, p. 480)

Based on this evaluation, the students determined that although such devices were helpful in patient motivation, the inaccuracies present require healthcare staff to be up-to-date and educated on emerging health trends (McNiel & McArthur, 2016).

As we review our own sources for this week’s Con-Position Paper, and the upcoming Week 7 Pro/Con Position Paper, let’s apply a similar evaluation method. Using the table in the McNiel and McArthur (2006) article as a prompt, we can tailor our questions to determine source credibility and relevancy. Click on the following link to access the McNeil and McArther (2006) article:

Link (library article): Evaluating Health Mobile Apps (Links to an external site.) (Click on Full Text Finder to access the article. Select Full text – PDF for the formatted version of the table.)
CRAAP stands for Currency, Relevance, Authority, Accuracy, and Purpose.

Click on the following tabs to review each criterion.

Currency: How current is the information? Hint: over 5 years is usually considered outdated in the general education and healthcare fields.

By examining at each of these components, we can evaluate our sources to make sure they are the most appropriate resources for this specific project. For academic papers, we want to be sure to select sources that are the up-to-date, directly connected to the subject, written by experts in the field and peer-reviewed with citations. Since we are writing a con-position paper this week, a certainly amount of partiality is expected.

In our discussion board this week, we will attempt to evaluate a source using this approach.

Signal Phrases
Blank white direction right arrow road sign

Last week we discussed how to construct body paragraphs. As responsible researchers and writers, it is our job to incorporate the evidence, rather than just dropping it into the paper or project. Incorporating sources means introducing and explaining the references material to our audience. We cannot assume that the audience will understand the connection between quoted or paraphrased material and our key points and thesis. To avoid any confusion, we have to make that connection for them.

One approach to source incorporation is through signal phrases. According to Seyler and Brizee, signal phrases “give readers a context for the borrowed material, as well as serving as part of the required documentation of sources” (2018, p. 289). Let’s practice brainstorming a few.

The following includes 3 rows with different information – try to combine 1 selection from each of the 3 rows to create a signal phrase:

Introducing the author: Oprah Winfrey, Professor Bunch, Captain Kirk, Grandpa Simpson, American Cancer Society, Mayo Clinic, Jim Henson, Abraham Lincoln, Dr. Seuss, Maya Angelou, Benjamin Franklin

Establishing credibility: generalize what makes the person credible in a short phrase. Examples: professional background, academic titles, titles of books, praise or accomplishments, etc.

Interesting verb choice: acknowledges, observes, suggests, reports, illustrates, emphasizes, contends, comments, asserts, adds, denies, disputes, claims, admits, acknowledges, rejects, points out, writes, implies

Example: Dr. Seuss (year of publication), renown author of numerous and beloved children’s books, suggests…(the paraphrased or quoted info would begin here).

Now you audience will accept the quoted or paraphrased material more readily because they know before they even read the text that the author is a credible one. We will give it a shot in our discussion board peer responses this week – this should be fun!

Chamberlain University. (2018). Reading and Understanding Scholarly Literature: What Does Peer-Reviewed Mean? Retrieved from

Hanses, R. P. (2018). Scholarly research workshop . Retrieved from Chamberlain University website:

Herron, J. (2016, October-December). Bad apps: mHealth apps doubling as medical devices. Journal of Electronic Resources in Medical Libraries, 13 (4), 177-181. Retrieved from ***

McNiel, P. & McArthur, E.C. (2016, August 1). Evaluating health mobile apps: Information literacy in undergraduate and graduate nursing courses. The Journal of Nursing Education, 55 , 480. Retrieved from ***

Seyler, D. U. & Brizee, A. (2018). Read, reason, write: An argument text and reader (12th ed.) New York, NY: McGraw Hill Education.

Troidl, J. (2019, June 5). How can I know if an article is peer-reviewed? Retrieved from

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